Directive (EU) 2016/943

[Question 1]

Will Directive (EU) 2016/943 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2016 on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use and disclosure which came into force on 5th July 2016 have any impact on the common law action of breach of confidence?

I am asked to address the following issues in this opinion:

  1. What is the purpose of Directive (EU) 2016/943 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2016 on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use and disclosure?


  1. What impact can Directive (EU) 2016/943 have on the common law action of breach of confidence?


  • Trade secrets

1.1 In order to consider those questions, it is necessary to consider the definition of a “trade secret”. In the preamble of the 2016 Directive[1] the importance of such a definition is highlighted, so as to harmonise across the Union the definition by which trade secrets can be recognised. A clear definition of trade secrets is provided in the 2016 Directive, under Article 2,[2] which includes the specific requirements that trade secrets need to possess to be classified as such, including characteristics of confidentiality and commercial value.

1.2 The United Kingdom has no codified system in the area of protecting trade secrets; instead the common law system of breach of confidence applies here, and through the case of Coco v A.N. Clark[3] a definition can be drawn to identify a trade secret. The elements of this definition to be satisfied to identify a trade secret must include “the necessary quality of confidence about it”, “that information must have been imparted in circumstances importing an obligation of confidence” and “there must be an unauthorised use of that information” as stated by Judge Megarry.[4]

[1] Directive (EU) 2016/943 Recital (14)

[2] Directive (EU) 2016/943, Ch.1, Art. 2 (1) (a), (b) and (c)

[3] Coco v A.N. Clark (Engineers) Ltd [1969] F.S.R. 415

[4] ibid. Para 15,

Existing Corporate Legal Provisions

The problems dealt with here are only indirectly addressed by statutory provisions dealing with transactions undertaken by companies that reduce their ability to satisfy creditor claims. These provisions include: Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) Chap 2J, which restricts the circumstances in which the assets of the company might be diminished by transfers to shareholders; Chap 2E, which restricts the circumstances in which financial benefits can be paid to parties related to corporate controllers; and Part 5.7B Division 2, dealing with uncommercial transactions and unfair preferences. The provisions on uncommercial transactions are aimed at preventing transactions in insolvency that would prejudice creditors.

Perhaps of greater relevance are the statutory directors’ duties, which determine the standards of conduct expected of directors in decision making and which aim to prevent insolvent trading. Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 588V makes a holding company liable for the debts of a subsidiary in circumstances where there are ‘reasonable grounds for suspecting that the [subsidiary] company is insolvent’ or would become insolvent by incurring further debt and that the holding company or one of its directors should have been aware of those grounds for suspicion. The liquidator of the subsidiary company is empowered to bring proceedings for recovery of the losses of the subsidiary and unsecured creditors.[1] The principal provision is accompanied by s 588G, which imposes a duty upon directors to prevent insolvent trading by their companies.[2] Section 588G creates rights to bring proceedings for compensation against directors for losses caused to the company and to unsecured creditors

[1] Corporations Act 2001 (Cth), s 588W(1).

[2] A parent or other company within a group might be treated as a director for these purposes where the board of the subsidiary is accustomed to act on the directions of that other company. Corporations Act 2001 (Cth), s 9. See Standard Chartered Bank of Australia v Antico (1995) 38 NSWLR 290, 328 and Abogados de accidentes

Guess who’s back?!

Hi guys, That’s me back from my amazing holiday!

Damn! It’s good to get back into the swing of things, however! The weather up here in Scotland is soooooo cold!

I hope i didn’t miss out on too much. I will be looking at all my emails shortly. Thanks for all the support guys. My next post will be on the controversial topic of…. BREXIT!

Here is a little teaser of what I will cover:

The Enterprise Act 2002 reformed insolvency law to provide the legal milieu for the fostering of a rescue culture. Critically evaluate how the new Administration regime was redesigned to assist financially distressed businesses


The reform of administration orders under the Enterprise Act 2002 has gone a long way in aiding companies in financial distress, one which with foresight of the banking crisis of 2007 was very helpful indeed. The Enterprise Act 2002 was designed to facilitate company rescue in order to produce better returns for creditors and “even up the playing field” a bit in respect of the competing interests of creditors. In order to assess how the reform has assisted financial distressed companies, it will be necessary to evaluate three main areas. Firstly, in order to establish why reform is needed, the situation prior to the 2002 Act will be analysed, focusing on the Insolvency Act 1986. Secondly, one will detail what was reformed and what significant changes that have been brought forward as a result. Finally, one will assess how effective the Enterprise Act has been in helping those companies in financial difficulty and whether or not there are any weaknesses and conclude whether said reform was successful in its attempts to assist financially distressed businesses.

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Going on holiday!

Hi folks, this is a quick update to let you all know I will be going on holiday for the next three months with my family. A well deserved break I might add!

I may be able to check emails etc but as you can imagine, I will not really want to focus on anything except relaxing on my time off. However, if it is a real emergency, contact me here.

All the best guys, and I will be back soon with a new blog about cars!

We can party too!

Photo booth hire Glasgow

I know, i know! Everyone seems to think lawyers are boring old stiffs who cannot party to save themselves. I am here to prove to you, that we can get down and funky just like the rest and best of them! We work the long 9-5 and sometimes even until 9pm! With phone calls from clients, crimes happening everyday… It does get tough, believe me! But then there’s Jonny!

My good friend Jonny has always been the go to guy with his party booths. They light up the fire as he has these awesome dance floors too! It really makes the night, 100x better! He will always turn a bad night into a special night to remember:

Photo booth hire Glasgow

You will not be disappointed with these guys, they are based in Scotland – Glasgow

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Have you had an accident?

Personal Injury Solicitors Birmingham

Hello guys, I have unfortunately been involved in a car accident and I feel i should share my experience. Let’s begin with how it happened, shall we?

Personal Injury Birmingham

I was driving into Birmingham on a work trip, we have clients there you see, and out of nowhere, a car comes crashing into me. They were on their phone, believe it or not! It was frightening. Luckily, no one was seriously hurt however my neck begin to turn red and I eventually passed out in the car. I don’t remember the ambulance ride. I only remember being in the hospital. First of all, my neck is fine. I think I fainted at the sight of blood coming down my nose. I am a softy! However, back to the events.

I am not familiar with Birmingham so once I was omitted from the hospital, my boss told me to get in touch with his good friends at Personal injury solicitors Birmingham . These guys are very professional and handled everything with ease. The women responsible had admitted fault and unfortunately her car was written off, whereas mine was okay to say the least.


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A little bit about me

If you need a Notary Public, Public Notary in London, Notary Public London  I am here to help.

London Notary

I provide the full range of Notary Public, Public Notary in London, Notary Public London services for private and commercial clients in London. I can also arrange Apostilles from the Legalisation Office of the UK Foreign & Commonwealth Office and legalisation of documents with any overseas Consulate in London.   I am accustomed to tight deadlines so if you’re in a hurry – I can help but please call me or email us to arrange an appointment.

Notary public London

This is something I love to do and I will explain why later down in this post.. so keep reading!

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